海关数据的来源有哪些英文


Import/export declarations

Import and export declarations are documents submitted to customs by importers and exporters, or by customs brokers on their behalf. These declarations provide details on the goods being traded such as quantity, value, commodity codes, country of origin/destination, etc. Customs collects and maintains data from import and export declarations to monitor trade flows.

Cargo manifests

Cargo manifests are documents submitted to customs by carriers detailing all goods carried aboard ships, aircraft, trucks or other vehicles crossing international borders. The manifest contains information on the description and value of the goods, consignor/consignee details, method of transport, etc. Like import/export declarations, cargo manifest data helps customs track trade patterns.

Foreign trade statistics

Many national statistical agencies and international organizations regularly publish foreign trade statistics based on data collected from customs. These statistics present aggregate import/export values by commodity groups and trading partners. Examples include UN Comtrade database, World Bank's World Integrated Trade Solution (WITS), IMF's Direction of Trade Statistics (DOTS), WTO's International Trade Statistics, etc.

Automatic import reference (AIR) system

The AIR is a system used by some customs administrations to pre-process declaration data. It helps importers prepare complete and accurate declarations by providing rules, commodity code lookups, duty/tax calculations etc. while the declaration is being filled. Some AIR systems also store historical declaration data which can be analyzed for risk management and enforcement purposes.

Periodic cargo/container examinations

Customs physically inspects a proportion of containers, vehicles and cargo entering/leaving a country. Findings of these physical checks like actual commodity, quantity, country of origin details supplement declaration data. They help validate accuracy of declarations as well as detect under/over invoicing, misclassification and other customs violations.

Post-clearance audits

Customs conducts periodic audits of importers, exporters and other stakeholders to verify accuracy and completeness of declarations, veracity of claims made, adherence to import/export regulations etc. Information gathered during these audits enriches customs data when anomalies or non-compliance are found in audit sample declarations.

Risk management systems

Advanced customs administrations deploy automated risk management systems to analyze declaration data and select high-risk consignments for physical or documentary checks using risk profiling techniques. Risk indicators, past non-compliance records are examples of customs data inputs for these systems.

Authorized economic operator programs

Under AEO programs, customs authorizes certified traders enjoying program benefits like reduced checks based on their compliance history as evaluated using previous declaration and audit findings. AEO-linked data on certified companies and their trade flows is another source of data for customs.

MoUs with partner government agencies

Cooperation agreements with other regulatory and enforcement agencies allow sharing of relevant trade data. For example, standards agency data helps customs with risk assessment. Linkage of customs and tax department databases improves compliance monitoring and data validation.


常见问答(FQAS)

What are import/export declarations?

Import and export declarations are documents submitted to customs by importers and exporters, or by customs brokers on their behalf. These declarations provide details on the goods being traded such as quantity, value, commodity codes, country of origin/destination, etc.

What are cargo manifests?

Cargo manifests are documents submitted to customs by carriers detailing all goods carried aboard ships, aircraft, trucks or other vehicles crossing international borders. The manifest contains information on the description and value of the goods, consignor/consignee details, method of transport, etc.

What are foreign trade statistics?

Foreign trade statistics are aggregate import/export values by commodity groups and trading partners published regularly by national statistical agencies and international organizations based on data collected from customs.

What is an automatic import reference (AIR) system?

The AIR is a system used by some customs administrations to pre-process declaration data. It helps importers prepare complete and accurate declarations by providing rules, commodity code lookups, duty/tax calculations etc. while the declaration is being filled.

What are risk management systems?

Risk management systems are automated systems deployed by advanced customs administrations to analyze declaration data and select high-risk consignments for physical or documentary checks using risk profiling techniques.


更新时间:2024-04-23
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